I couldn't find a good diagram of this online, so I did what any logical person would - made my own!
Basal- closer to the base of the organ (note the "base" of the root system is next to the soil line)
Apical- closer to the apex of the organ (the "apex" of the root system is the bottom-most/ inferior-most part)
Proximal - closer to the base of/ attachment point of a lateral organ like a leaf. For a leaf, this term is the same as basal.
Distal - farther from the base of/ attachment point of a lateral organ like a leaf. For a leaf, this term is the same as apical.
Adaxial- this is closer to the axis of the organ ("adding" to the axis). Axis is the very center of a cylindrical organ like a stem.
ABaxial- farther from the axis of the organ (similar to aBduction of a limb at the joint in human anatomy- taking it away from)
Periclinal- along the perimeter/ outer edge of an organ. They follow the perimeter.
Anticlinal- anti to the perimeter (at a right angle to the outer edge, like the scar in the drawn cross section)