Thursday, January 10, 2013

Review of basic Chem & Metabolism / Biological Macromolecules (Physiology Quiz 1)

Chemical Bonds


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Biological Macromolecules
See if you can recorgnize these types of macromolecules by their structure (answers at the end of this little section.)

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Source: http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_124/Summaries/Macromol.html

Answers:
1- A carbohydrate.  Usually in rings like this (all corners of the ring represent a Carbon atom), with Oxygen and Hydrogen.
2- An amino acid/ protein.  The dead giveaway is the Nitrogen in it.  Carbs and lipids don't have Nitrogen in them.
3- A lipid/ triglyceride.  The saturated hydrocarbon tails - 3 of them - are the clue here.
4- Protein (tertiary structure).  It's all folder over on itself.
(Note: examples of nucleic acids and more examples of each kind immediately follow)


 Proteins
Source: http://sph.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/PH/PH709_A_Cellular_World/PH709_A_Cellular_World6.html
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Lipids





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Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides
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Polysaccharides
Storage in animals: glycogen
Highly branched.  Can contain 30,000 individual glucose units! (Click on source to see on a white background)
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Storage in plants: Starch

Amylopectin - branched starch (Source)

Cellulose


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Nucleic Acids
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In this one, notice the deoxyribose has one fewer Oxygen's on the corner there, where it's pointing, hence the name.  That is the sugar part of the sugar-phosphate backbone.  The green parts with the 2 rings are the nucleic acids.
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