(Click to enlarge)
Channels, Channels, Channels!
There are 9 different kinds of gates/channels/ pumps in neurons. I will group them here by their function which can help you remember them.
So, just to be clear this is how I categorized the channels by what they do.
Maintain membrane potential:
Na+ diffusion channel (Sodium leak channel)
K+ diffusion channel (Potassium leak channel)
Involved in action potentials:
Voltage-gated sodium channels (allow sodium to rush in, resulting in depolarization)
Voltage-gated potassium channels (allow potassium to rush out, resulting in repolarization)
Voltage-gated calcium channels (are triggered at the end of the axon, and trigger release of neurotransmitters)
Involved in post-synaptic reception:
Chemically-gated Na+/K+ channel (Ligand-gated sodium-potassium channel)
Chemically-gated K+ channel (Ligand-gated potassium channel)
Chemically-gated Cl- channel (Ligand-gated chloride channel)
Here is a diagram I made, grouping the channels by function (each function has the same shape).
The influx of Calcium triggers the neurotransmitters to exocytose and that is the end of the message for the pre-synaptic neuron.
|Example of chemically-gated channels with Chloride channel being activated (notice the red triangles represent neurotransmitter and they do not enter the cell)|
|Click here to learn about action potential|
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